Herb Substitutions

Basil Oregano or thyme
Chervil Tarragon or parsley
Chive Green onion; onion; or leek
Cilantro Parsley
Italian Seasoning Blend of any of these: basil, oregano, rosemary, and ground red pepper
Marjoram Basil; thyme; or savory
Mint Basil; marjoram; or rosemary
Oregano Thyme or basil
Parsley Chervil or cilantro
Poultry Seasoning Sage plus a blend of any of these: thyme, marjoram, savory, black pepper, and rosemary
Red Pepper Dash bottled hot pepper sauce or black pepper
Rosemary Thyme; tarragon; or savory
Sage Poultry seasoning; savory; marjoram; or rosemary
Savory Thyme; marjoram; or sage
Tarragon Chervil; dash fennel seed; or dash aniseed
Thyme Basil; marjoram; oregano; or savory

Spice Substitutions

Allspice Cinnamon; cassia; dash of nutmeg or mace; or dash of cloves
Aniseed Fennel seed or a few drops anise extract
Cardamom Ginger
Chili Powder Dash bottled hot pepper sauce plus a combination of oregano and cumin
Cinnamon Nutmeg or allspice (use only 1/4 of the amount)
Cloves Allspice; cinnamon; or nutmeg
Cumin Chili powder
Ginger Allspice; cinnamon; mace; or nutmeg
Mace Allspice; cinnamon; ginger; or nutmeg
Nutmeg Cinnamon; ginger; or mace
Saffron Dash turmeric (for color)

Common Substitutions

1 teaspoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 cup chicken or beef broth 1 bouillon cube or 1 envelope or 1 teaspoon instant bouillon plus 1 cup boiling water
1 cup buttermilk 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice plus enough milk to equal 1 cup. Let stand 5 minutes to thicken. Or use 1 cup plain yogurt
1 ounce unsweetened chocolate 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon butter, margarine, or oil
6 ounces semisweet chocolate 1 cup chocolate chips, or 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 7 tablespoons sugar and 4 tablespoons butter, margarine, or oil
1 tablespoon cornstarch 2 tablespoons flour or 2 tablespoons quick-cooking tapioca
1 tablespoon fish sauce 2 teaspoons soy sauce plus 1 teaspoon anchovy paste
1 cup cake flour 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1 cup self-rising flour 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1/4 teaspoon baking powder and a pinch of salt
1 cup whole milk 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water
Pancetta Use sliced smoked bacon simmered in water for 3 minutes, then rinsed and drained
Prosciutto Use ham, preferably Westphalian or a country ham, such as Smithfield
1 cup sour cream 1 cup plain yogurt (in unheated recipe). To prevent yogurt from curdling in a cooked recipe, you will have to stabilize it with 1 egg white or 1 tablespoon of cornstarch or flour dissolved in a little cold water for every quart of yogurt
Yogurt Buttermilk
1 package active dry yeast 1/2-ounce yeast cake or 1 package quick-rise yeast (allow half the rising time for quick rise)
Pine nuts Walnuts or almonds
1 cup light brown sugar 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1 tablespoon molasses or 1 cup dark brown sugar
15-ounce can tomato sauce 6-ounce can tomato paste plus 1 1/2 cans water
Vanilla extract Brandy or an appropriately flavored liqueur
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